Approaches to religion can also differ significantly. Contemporary European Christians, for instance, are rather moderate in their faiths, particularly when compared to American evangelicals. While the Catholic Church condemns homosexuality and same-sex marriage, its influence is nowadays limited in Europe except in a few nations, especially Poland, Italy, and Ireland.
Additionally, like numerous American Catholics , European Catholics frequently disregard the Church's teachings on questions like contraception, abortion, and gay rights.
In sum, once religious conservatism is absent or moderate, opposition to gay marriage becomes less intense. Of course, homophobia is not only spurred by religious conservatism. It can equally reflect uneasiness or animosity towards people who are perceived as different, just like racism, sexism or xenophobia. In that regard, homophobia presumably exists in all countries to a lesser or greater extent.
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Yet, the extraordinary weight of Christian fundamentalism in conservative America exacerbates concerns about sexual morality. The question of gay rights illustrates the great polarization between contemporary liberal America and conservative America. An international comparison suggests, however, that liberal America is much closer to other Western nations than to conservative America when it comes to embracing modern norms of tolerance.
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The Gay Rights Question in Contemporary American Law
All rights reserved. Tap here to turn on desktop notifications to get the news sent straight to you. Help us tell more of the stories that matter from voices that too often remain unheard. Table of Contents. Acknowledgments Introduction 1.
The Gay Rights Question in Contemporary American Law, Koppelman
Equal Protection and Invidious Intent 2. The Right to Privacy? The Sex Discrimination Argument, and Objections 4. Why Discriminate? Choice of Law and Public Policy 6. Chicago Blog : Law. Events in Law. Sign Up. The development of law cannot be a mute spectator to the struggle for the realisation and attainment of the rights of such members of the society. Therefore, sex, if performed differently, as per the choice of the consenting adults, does not per se make it against the order of nature.
We must make it clear that freedom of choice cannot be scuttled or abridged on the threat of criminal prosecution and made paraplegic on the mercurial stance of majoritarian perception. The very existence of section IPC criminalising transgenders casts a great stigma on an already oppressed and discriminated class of people.
This stigma, oppression, and prejudice has to be eradicated and the transgenders have to progress from their narrow claustrophobic spaces of mere survival in hiding with their isolation and fears to enjoying the richness of living out of the shadows with full realization of their potential and equal opportunities in all walks of life.
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The ideals and objectives enshrined in our benevolent Constitution can be achieved only when each and every individual is empowered and enabled to participate in the social mainstream and in the journey towards achieving equality in all spheres, equality of opportunities in all walks of life, equal freedoms and rights and, above all, equitable justice. This can be achieved only by inclusion of all and exclusion of none from the mainstream.
The stereotypes fostered by section have an impact on how other individuals and non-state institutions treat the community. While this behaviour is not sanctioned by Section , the existence of the provision nonetheless facilitates it by perpetuating homophobic attitudes and making it almost impossible for victims of abuse to access justice.
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