The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview


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The shortage of labor will eventually weigh heavily on potential GDP growth and be exacerbated by the early retirement of an increasing share of the workforce. A scarcity of workers could negatively affect production capacity and investment.

NDL India: The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview

The problem may be amplified by the possibility that other European Union EU countries open their labor markets to workers from Ukraine, who have so far helped Poland mitigate the shortfall in the labor supply. A dense political calendar, with EU, presidential, and general elections all coming up within one year, has inspired a range of procyclical policies.

Proposed measures to increase social benefits, lower tax rates, and inflate the cost of pension payments are expected to put pressure on public finances in the medium term. The World Bank program in Poland consists of two ongoing lending operations flood management projects and knowledge products that help the country address its crucial development challenges, including in the areas of health and regional disparities.

Bibliographic Information

The partnership with the World Bank allows for the sharing of evidence-based resources, such as experiences in the design and implementation of integrated care systems. At the start of , the World Bank and the NFZ began implementing integrated care in the primary health care system with the aim of ensuring that diagnostic, therapeutic, and rehabilitation care is focused on patient needs.

Why Poland’s Populist Law and Justice Party Keeps Winning

Under the new agreement, Bank experts will monitor and evaluate the implementation of a pilot project that covers , people countrywide. The World Bank works hand in hand with national and regional authorities, providing knowledge and practical expertise to help overcome bottlenecks that the regions themselves have identified.

Private consumption grew by 4. Despite growing public expenditures, the general government deficit for is estimated to amount to 0. Despite increased energy prices and strong consumption, consumer prices rose by a modest 1. The labor market has tightened further despite rising employment rates, partly due to a reduced retirement age, coupled with the introduction of a child benefit that has led workers to withdraw from the labor market during a period of growing demand.


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Labor shortages have started to affect business activity, as job vacancies increased in the third quarter of to 1. The previous projection of real GDP growth has been revised upward by 0.

Household consumption expenditures are set to continue growing, fueled by government spending on social benefits and labor market conditions. Fiscal performance remains a challenge despite the sound budget position so far. In the short term, public expenditure is likely to increase significantly due to recently announced policies that are expected to enter into force prior to the general elections in October This natural disaster reminded Poland of its intrinsic vulnerability to flooding caused by the mountainous and hilly landscape and by decades of neglect.

The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview

This period is interesting on account of the increasing influence of anthropogenic forcing and its overlap with natural factors. The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview summarises the results of research into climate variability based on a combination of instrumental, documentary, dendrochronological and borehole data from Poland.

The first part of the book provides a Central European perspective of research in these fields, which forms the general background for a presentation of the state of the art of climatic change studies in Poland during the past years Part 2. This is followed by a selection of papers dealing mainly with different aspects of climate variability in Poland and Central Europe Part 3. It is, as such, a must for climate researchers worldwide.

European temperature

From the reviews: "This book is a valuable tool integrating Polish, Central and Eastern European climate research into the global context. Help Centre. My Wishlist Sign In Join.


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The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview
The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview
The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview
The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview
The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview
The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview
The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview

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